"Breakthrough Strategy", A. Shumilin, the Chairman of the SCST , "Belaruskaya Dumka", no. 1, 2014
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"Breakthrough Strategy", A. Shumilin, the Chairman of the SCST , "Belaruskaya Dumka", no. 1, 2014
Priority areas of scientific and technological development of the Republic of Belarus
In this century, the place and role of Belarus in the global economy in the conditions when there are practically no own sources of hydrocarbons and metals, will be largely determined by the level of its scientific and technological development, the ability to create and effectively implement their own innovative technologies and if needed to adoptimported innovative technologies, to produce products with high added value, as well as by the degree of presence on the world market of high and new technologies.
The creation of fundamentally new industries and enterprises producing export-oriented high-tech products andthe entry to new markets are two of the main goals of the government in the current five-year period of the Program of Socio-Economic Development of the Republic of Belarus.
The President said in his message to the Belarusian people and the National Assembly: “I am convinced that the new scientific inventions without clever financial schemes will start up “the failing engine”of the world economy... The key problem of our economy is competitiveness of domestic goods. And to win the fierce competitive war of theglobal market, we must constantly update knowledge, technologies, equipment and control systems ... At the same time we have to rely on three strong national projects that will update the state”.
Three major projects defined by the President, such as modernization of the economy, informatizationof the society, support for young people and involvement of them in large-scale state-building are strategically relevant.
The issues of technological development, modernization and re-equipment of productions are acute not only for Belarus. The formation of global telecommunication networks, the expansion of economic use of information and internet technologies, extensive development of transport and logistics systems and aggressive marketing policy have intensified global competition and reduced product life cycles. As a result, the companies are forced to develop new products and services more quickly and bring them to market.
This problem is global,and it’s predetermined by modern trends of technological development, which is closely linked to innovation development, and in time this relationship will only grow.
Goals, tasks and a strategy of science and technical development of our country are identified by a number of normative legal acts of the Republic of Belarus.
Thus, in accordance with the Law “On State Science and Technology Policy”, the basic principles of formation and implementation of state scientific-technical policy of the Republic of Belarus are orientation of scientific and scientific-technical activities on the priority development of science-intensive resource-saving,energy-saving and labor-saving technologies and productions;mutually beneficial cooperation with other countries, the creation of conditions for attracting foreign investment to the development of science and technology, development of new technologies and new products.
The strategy of the technological development of the Republic of Belarus for the period up to 2015 was approved in 2010.Its main goal is the creation of a competitive economy based on the use of advanced technologies and incentives to encourage innovative activity of entrepreneurs.
According to the Law “On State Innovation Policy and Innovative Activity in the Republic of Belarus” an important role is given to the prediction of technological development as a foresight of trends and the future state of engineering andtechnologiesin certain area made with the use of scientifically substantiated methods based on the analysis and evaluation of previous stages of their development and current state.
The presidential decree determines priority areas of scientific and technical activities in the Republic of Belarus for 2011-2015.
They take into account a strategy of transition to the technologies of the5th and the 6thmodes and include energy and energy-saving; agro-industrial technologies and productions, industrial and construction production technologies; medicine, medical equipment and technologies, pharmacy; chemical technologies, nanotechnologies and biotechnologies; information and communication and aerospace technologies; new materials;rational environmental management, resource saving and protection from emergencies; defense and national security.
The study of experience of countries of Western Europe, Russia and their markets shows that the priority areas of scientific and technical activities of Belarus and the goals of other countries in these areas largely overlap. In particular, a significant coincidence is observed when comparing the development priorities of the Republic of Belarus and the Russian Federation.
The development strategy of the EU “Europe 2020” (Europe 2020 ), which identifies microelectronics and nanoelectronics, photonics, nanotechnologies, modern materials , biotechnologies,
advanced manufacturing technologies, and space exploration technologiesas key technologies for the European Union countries (many of which, like ours, do not have significant own hydrocarbon reserves) has been approved. The same can be said about the coincidence of the problems of society which can be solved thanks to them, such as efficient and secure energy (for example, one of the goals of the European strategy "Europe 2020" is the growth of energy efficiency, as well as the share of renewable sources in the total volume of energy, up to 20 %), the stable transport, ecology, medicine and more active involvement of the population by means of information and communication technologies in public life and administration.
To manufacture products with high added value and low energy intensity and material intensity capable of creating fundamentally new types of goods and services, it’s necessary to introduce domestic advanced technologies and to attract foreign advanced technologies for development of productions of the 5th and the 6thtechnological modes.
Adoption of nanotechnologies, as well as cellular technologies,modification of living organisms, including genetic engineering methods, along with the electronics industry, information technologies, software, is the core of the 6thtechnological mode.
Biotechnologies, based on achievements of molecular biology and genetic engineering, nanotechnology, artificial intelligence systems, global information networks and integrated high-speed transportation systems will be among the main areas of its development.
A flexible production automation, aerospace technologies, production of construction materials with predetermined properties, nuclear industry and aviation transportationwill be promoted.
There will be even greater intellectualization of production and the transition to continuous innovation process in most industries and continuing education in most professions. The requirements for the quality of life and comfort environment will become very important.
The production areawill start using clean and non-waste technologies.
Information, education and medical services will take a dominant position in the structure of consumption. The progress in technologies of information processing, systems of telecommunications, financial technologies will entail further globalization of the economy and formation of a common world market for goods, capital and labor.
In addition, the development of so-called convergent technologies forming at the intersection of various domains will be the feature of the next decade. It is expected the emergence of a qualitatively new effects in various fields, including both traditional areas of use (industry, transport, communication, defense and security), as well as new ones such as health care and education, government, households.
Nanobiotechnology and bioinformatics can be an example of convergent technologies, the active development of which can be expected in the future.
The enhancement of diffusion of modern high technologies in the medium-tech and low-tech sector of the production area is another emerging trend. The formation of new technologies providing significant changes of the nature of production processes and the properties of the finished product is expected within traditional industries.
First of all, the integration of information and production technologies (development of quality control systems, orientation of products to a specific customer and its support throughout the life cycle) will occur.The replacement of the growth of traditional energy and natural gas consumption by expanding of the area of the use of hydrogen as an ecologically friendlyenergy source, a substantial increase in the use of renewable energy sources, that is, an ecologization,is one of the hallmarks of the post-industrial technologies and innovations (5th and 6th technological modes).
This will be expressedbytechnological innovations which acquire growing importance. These innovations:
- provide comprehensive utilization of the natural resources involved in the production, the spread of non-waste technologies of extraction of these resources, the processing, the transportation and the consumption;
- contribute to the reduction of harmful wastesand the reduction of environmental pollution;
- provide the transition to renewable energy types and natural resources, the reproduction of natural- resource base (geological exploration, forestry, water management , land reclamation and recultivation, fish farming,breeding of endangered species of fauna and cultivation of endangered species of flora).
The national program of development of local and renewable energy sources for 2011-2015 provides an increase in the use of energy to wood and peat, the use of straw, municipal waste, sewage and waste energy to produce electricity and thermal energy, the introduction of biogas, wind energy and solar power plants , thermal pumps, construction and rehabilitation of hydropower plants.
Most of these things have already been implemented, and work on the transition to renewable energy types continues.
The total potential volume of substitution of imported energy resources on agricultural facilities, including those intended for the construction of agricultural complexes is 635.5 thousand tons of standard fuel in Belarus when the installed capacity is 269 MW at cogeneration plant by introducing biogas complexes.
Perhaps the transition to renewable energy sources is not always economically feasible with the current market prices for energy carriers.
Nevertheless, an additional economic effect will be achieved (the increase in amounts of jobs, the creation of new high-tech industries, the growth of the tax base, etc.) taking into account the prospect of the development of markets and technologies, as well as the fact that the volatility will be reduced and financial resources of the country will be saved as a result of this transition.
It is expected that these areas will be actively developed in the future.
The management culture will undergo significant changes. The systems of automated design will be further developed, which enables us to go to the automated management of the entire life cycle of products based on the CALS- technologies together with marketing technologies and technological forecasting.
The improvement and development of new automated control systems seems to be a promising area.
One of the clearest examples of the potential in this area available in the Republic of Belarus is the activity of the JSC “AGAT Control Systems” , the managing company “Geographic Information Management Systems”, which has been creating developments in the field of integrated information systems, automation in the energy, transport and other areas, and introduction of them into the real economy sector.
Wide application of information and communication technologies in modern conditions and in the future will become an engine of economic growth and social development.
Experience in the use of their business processes indicates the growth of labor productivity, reduced operating costs , increased agility enterprises increase their competitiveness.
The High-Tech Park is one of the major components and examples of the successful functioning of the innovation infrastructure of the country established in accordance with the Decree of the President A. Lukashenko with the purpose of creating favorable conditions for development in Belarus software, information and communication technologies, aimed at improving the competitiveness of the national economy. The HTP administration and its residents received very significant results, especially in the export of works and services in the field of information and communication technologies (ICT). The HTP, which combines both small and large software companies, ranks among the top ten of domestic exporters. In contrast to the free economic zones and major European and Asian parks, the Belarusian HTP is not a geographically closed form.
A favorable legal regime applies to it throughout Belarus: after having registered as a resident of the park, you can use all the associated benefits, regardless of where the office Belarusian company is located.
This circumstance enables to use educational, research, professional and infrastructure potential throughout the country in full measure.
In the future, the positive experience of the functioning and development of the HTP needs to be transferred to other innovative infrastructure entities and areas of activities in Belarus. It makes sense to consider a phased expansion of the activities and the HTP.
Formation and development of the nanotechnology industry in our country is defined by the concept, the purpose of which is to assess the existing potential in the Republic of Belarus and the definition of prospects and an organizational-economic mechanism of formation and development of the nanotechnology industry in 2013-2015 and for the period up to 2020.
The analysis of the scientific and technical potential of the Republic of Belarus enables to identify the following promising areas in the development and commercialization of nanotechnologies and the production and nanotechnological products:
- sensing and diagnostics;
- nanoelectronics and solar cells;
- filters and membranes ;
Taking into account the early stage of nanotechnology industry development in the world, our country does not have the structures the main activity for which is production of nanotechnology products. However,there are a number of organizations carrying out its output on an industrial scale.
7 scientific organizations implement active development and implementation of nanotechnological products related primarily to the category of scientific and scientific-technical products in the structure of the NAS of Belarus. These organizations arethe state scientific institutions “Physicotechnical Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus”, the “Institute of Physics named after B. Stepanov”of the National Academy of Sciences”, the “Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus”, the “Institute of Physical Organic Chemistry of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus”, the “Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer named after A.Lykov of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus”, the “State Research and Production Association of Powder Metallurgy”, the SRPA “Scientific-Practical Center of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus on Materials”. There are about 1,500 people of these organizations and 300 people are involved in the in research and development workson nanotechnology topics, which shows quite a high degree of specialization in this particular area.
On the whole in 2010-2011, the sales were carried out on 17 main types of nanotechnology products of the NAS of Belarus. Micro and ultrafiltration membranes and membrane equipment, composite materials and wear-resistant ceramic products are the three item names which are leading sales volume in the domestic market.
Of course, the further development of nano- technological areas can not only provide technological breakthroughs in this area, but may also influence the development of other disciplines, such as biotechnology and information and communication technologies .
Thecontinued aging of populations of developed countries entails an increase in demand for medical support.
Besides, there’s a good likelihood that expanded global trade and tourist flows will increase considerably both the risk of appearance of new diseases and faster spread of diseases among plants, animals and people.
It’s estimated that medical and social expenses will make up a considerable part of national budgets of countries reducing capital investments into other economy sectors.
On the basis of this, the research in the field of medicine, medical equipment and pharmacy is one of the most important areas of scientific-technical development of our country.
Belarusian developments in the mentioned areas make successfully their way to the external markets.
The serial production of digital X-ray mammographs enabling to conduct an early diagnostics of oncological diseases the price of which is 2,5-3 times lower than the price of foreign devices with comparable characteristic, the production of automated multi-functional fluorometric analyzer of biological cells and tissues for diagnostics of malignant neoplasms at the PSPUE “Spektravtokompleks”.
The increase of demand in medical equipment on the basis of semiconductor lasers, the distinctive feature of which is small weight and dimensional characteristics, low energy consumption and low cost is possible in the future. Also the prolongation of the production of medical equipment on the basis of solid-state lasers is also considered as one of the most important areas of formation of the sector of optoelectronics. The mentioned types of laser devices supplement each other, provide the main modern medical technologies and enable to stop using expensive foreign analogs. It enables to meet the demands of the domestic medical market in this equipment completely, and the competitive price will favor the global market entry.
Thus, to achieve a sustainable socio-economic growth of the Republic of Belarus in the conditions of extremely limited resources of its own metals and hydrocarbons, it is necessary to build knowledge-based, resource-saving economy based on knowledge and intellect in the future.
The transition to the production of high added value should occur by modernizing the existing industries and improving the sectoral structure of the economy through the development of high-tech industries, the development and introduction of new breakthrough technologies.