Patent for сreativity: how to make money on intellectual property - talked to the experts
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What are the chances for Belarus, whose subsoil does not have serious minerals, to make an economic breakthrough - thanks to the minds of its citizens? What is our country's intellectual property system? These and other issues became the topic of the round table discussion “Intellectual Property: Looking into the Future. To the beginning of the WIPO Summer School ”, which took place in the press center BelTA on the eve of the opening of this very Summer School, which takes place from 19 to 30 July.
Vladimir Ryabovolov, General Director of the State Institution "National Center for Intellectual Property" (NCIP):
- The summer school is our joint - significant - a project of this format with the World Intellectual Property Organization, working under the auspices of the UN. Its holding testifies to the close integration of Belarus into the world intellectual property system. Taking into account the pandemic, only 12-13 schools have passed in the world, and the fact that one of them is in our country speaks volumes. I would like to note that Belarus is one of the co-founders of the World Intellectual Property Organization, whose headquarters is located in Geneva, moreover, almost from its very establishment - since 1970.
Our country is constantly expanding the base of international treaties, acting in such organizations as the EAEU, the Eurasian Patent Organization and, of course, WIPO, whose members are more than 190 organizations from different countries.
Today the Republic of Belarus is a party to 32 international treaties in the field of intellectual property, in 19 of which WIPO performs administrative functions. We participate in those of them that are economically beneficial. This allows national applicants to obtain legal protection for industrial designs and trademarks on the territory of the countries participating in these agreements under a simplified procedure and with minimal financial costs, and also provides regional and international advantages of registration and protection of IP objects. All this contributes to the integration of the Republic of Belarus into the world economy.
- A unique place in the IP infrastructure is occupied by the Republican Scientific and Technical Library. Today it is more than a library. What help can an innovator and inventor get from her fund?
Raisa Sukhorukova, Director of the State Institution "Republican Scientific and Technical Library":
- In the post-Soviet space, we are the second - after Russia - in terms of information potential - the availability of documents related to IP. There are more than 55 million documents in our funds. In 2020, people from 264 settlements of the republic, as well as foreigners, applied to us and our branches for patent documentation. Today, readers can get valuable advice and advice from the specialists of the Technology and Innovation Support Centers, which have opened in our areas of five library branches in the regions.
In addition to free services and consultations, the library also provides paid services. Most often they are in demand by enterprises and organizations interested in patent search. Thanks to the universal fund, in 2020, 2002 industrial enterprises from a wide variety of industries were served in this way. We have been online since 2003. Now, during the pandemic, this is very important, given the fact that she also has access to 160 electronic databases, of which half are patent.
A patent is not just a document, but an essential source of information about IP. It is no coincidence that multinational companies include patent analysts in their structure, who track all patent innovations in the industry. Once upon a time, patent services in Belarus were at every enterprise - now they are not everywhere.
- That is, after conducting a patent search with the help of your consultants, a person (organization) will not try, relatively speaking, to reinvent the wheel?
- Sometimes they neglect this rule, forgetting that before bringing a product to the market, you need to prove its patent purity. One scientific laboratory worked on a project for 5 years without conducting a patent search, and then it turned out that the product they had developed had been the authorship for a long time.
Or let us recall the conflict of Belarusian confectioners, when in 2006 they exported a batch of Mishka Kosolapy, Alenka, Duchess, and Barberry sweets to the Russian market. The whole party was arrested. The candy war on the use of Soviet trademarks for Belarusians ended with the fact that we began to produce "Lyubimaya Alyonka", "Bear in a Glade", etc. Today, if our confectioners want to import products using Soviet trademarks, for example, to Russia, Kazakhstan, must negotiate with local copyright holders of similar trademarks. If you do not agree - do not carry, so as not to incur financial and image losses.
- We have not heard about the domestic Kulibins for a long time. What measures are being taken in the republic to revive the movement of inventions and innovations and is it necessary to do this?
- You definitely need to revive! There is a Belarusian Society of Inventors and Rationalizers in the country, but it has to be filled with deeper content - to make this organization more efficient. It is necessary that society not only popularizes innovation, but that it turns into a kind of branch "trade union" capable of defending the interests of innovators and inventors. Their choice, their path is not just an amateur creativity of talented people-innovators. The movement has a long history. It is important for us not to lose traditions, to adapt them to modern realities! This is one of the key directions of the state policy of the Republic of Belarus in the scientific and technical sphere. Support for inventors and innovators is spelled out, in particular, in the State Program for Innovative Development for 2021-2025, as well as in the strategy of the Republic of Belarus in the field of intellectual property for 2021-2030.
The Patent Office, as the body that registers and provides IP protection, will try not to be aloof from this task. We completed the work on developing an IP policy for institutions of higher education and science, taking as a basis the methodological approaches of specialists from various organizations, including the exemplary university - Bauman Moscow State Technical University. It will help Belarusian universities to build a system that motivates not only scientists, teachers, but also students, graduate students, masters, so that they strive to create specific - competitive! - the results of intellectual activity, as well as build mutually beneficial relationships with commercial structures and investors.
- What economic effect does intellectual property bring to our country?
- The use of intellectual property rights can (and should) generate income for society. In recent years, the volume of domestic exports of services in industries where the share of the use of IP is high, from 2016 to 2020 increased from $ 27 million to $ 125 million. The volume of exports of computer services during this time increased by 2.5 times. In 2016, it was $ 956 million, and in 2020 - more than $ 2.5 billion. This indicates the high potential of IT technologies. In the 1st quarter, the growth of payments for the use of intellectual property increased by more than 5%, and the export of computer services - by almost 19% compared to the same level in 2020. And this despite the pandemic and a number of other problems. We value this steady growth very much.
The country's potential in the scientific and technical sphere is determined by the Global Innovation Index, according to which Belarus ranked 86th in 2018, 72nd in 2019, and 64th in 2020. Growth in 2 years amounted to 22 points, that is, we are developing dynamically. In some areas, even at a faster pace. In terms of the export of information and communication services, Belarus is 15th in the world, in terms of graduates in exact engineering sciences, we are in 11th place. Government expenditures per student of secondary education - 8th place. In the creation of mobile applications (for phones) - the first place in the world, that is, we are world leaders! For applications for patents for utility models in the country of origin, we occupy the 16th place, which also indicates a high scientific, technical and intellectual potential.
- What does the practice of the best enterprises and organizations that know how to make money on intellectual property say today? What advice can they give to specific businesses and organizations?
Yuri Nechepurenko, head of the research and innovation department of the institution of the Belarusian State University "Research Institute of Physical and Chemical Problems":
- Leading corporations annually receive hundreds of billions of dollars from the use of intellectual property. The Republic of Belarus follows the path of world experience. IP is an expensive intangible asset. Therefore, the entire knowledge-intensive high-tech business of our enterprises should be based on effective IP management. There are several classic ways to make money using IP.
The first way (main). Use IP objects in your own production. Our business entities produce goods and provide services that must be legally protected in all world markets. An example of this is the experience of our institute. And although we are a research organization, in our own production we have used 34 IP objects in recent years: 24 inventions, 4 trademarks, 7 know-how. Produced and sold marketable products worth more than $ 41 million in equivalent.
In addition, the institute, together with other enterprises of the country, received more than 40 patents for inventions. Half of them were introduced at the same enterprises, which produced marketable products worth hundreds of millions of rubles. These are medicines, diesel biofuel, means for fingerprint examination, low-tonnage chemicals for agriculture, enterprises of the Ministry of Energy.
And we are not alone. For example, Polotsk State University has created a device for the rapid analysis of petroleum products, having patented it with a French company in 13 countries of the world. The device has been produced for almost 20 years. During this time, PSU received 1.2 million euros for the use of their invention.
Second way. Licensing. You can grant the right to use the IP object and get good money for it. The volume of global licensed trade is $ 400 billion per year.
This method is actively used in Belarus. At the beginning of 2021, more than 6.7 thousand licensing agreements and 625 franchising agreements were registered with the NCIS.
In the field of inventions, the leading scientific and educational sector: the National Academy of Sciences, universities and other organizations of the Ministry of Education - 40% of all inventions in the country, which are actively licensed. For example, NAS organizations sold 550 licenses in Belarus, and 175 in the Russian Federation. Over 15 years, they received $ 5.8 million in royalties. The institutes and universities of the Ministry of Education signed 59 licensing agreements, the income from which amounted to more than $ 2 million. Our institute alone received about $ 380 million. We sold 7 licenses to the BSU Unitechprom enterprise, which produced about $ 2 million worth of them.
Third way. Sell or contribute to the authorized capital of the enterprise. If you do not need an IP object, you can sell it. Our legislation allows for the formation of the statutory fund up to 50% of funds to be made as non-monetary contribution. That is, thanks to a computer program, a trademark, a production secret, you can become a co-owner of an enterprise. Abroad, our flagships - MTZ, BELAZ, Amkodor, Gomselmash - actively use this. They created dozens of joint ventures outside Belarus, contributing IP to their statutory fund - mainly know-how, design and technological documentation.
The Republic of Belarus is actively commercializing its intellectual property.
- How to raise awareness about the possibilities of IP in the development of entrepreneurship, the growth of business efficiency?
Albert Taipov, Chairman of the Association for the Protection of Intellectual Property "BelBrand":
- We work a lot with young people. She is the gold fund of the country's innovators and inventors. Recently, together with the SCST and the NCIS, a number of useful and informative forums and competitions have been held for her: the international Anti-Counterfeiting Forum, several international WIPO seminars, the International Social Advertising Competition, the Republican Competition of Student Papers, a series of round tables “Non-creative question: how to protect intellectual property in the realities of the creative economy? "
Young people today demonstrate examples of unique designs and proposals. For example, the guys from the Zelva gymnasium №1 became the winners of the annual competition for the best innovative project, presenting to the jury their work ZNOVA - a technology for the production of paper from cane. Another winner of the competition was the medical startup "Neural Network for the Classification of X-ray Images in COVID" by the student of the Belarusian State Medical University Andrey Kapitonov. We promote the best winning projects in the country and abroad. For example, the Reed Paper project received support from the Eurasian Creative Guild in London. For more than three years now, a modern comfortable tram "Chizhik" has been running in St. Petersburg, made in Fanipol according to a design project of students of the automotive faculty of BNTU. As you can see, young people are capable of changing the world, making it better and making real money on it.
- Who attended the WIPO Summer School, and what should those unlucky enough to take the course of the best international IP specialists to do?
- There are trained enough people - patent experts, patent attorneys, students, teachers. In order to get into the WIPO summer school, it was necessary to undergo initial training at the WIPO academy. The NCIP also has courses for training specialists in the field of intellectual property. This year we plan to train more than 500 everyone. But this is not enough. I believe that every university that is related to IP should have special training programs adapted to the types of activities of graduates - medicine, architecture, construction, technology, etc. We need to make sure that IP becomes a quality tool capable of bringing the potential creativity of people to a high economic level. We do not have large resources that make it possible to extract natural rent. Our main strategic resource is the intellectual activity of our population.